The role of muscular traction in the occurrence of skeletal relapse after advancement bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO): A systematic review.

M. den Van Bempt, S. Vinayahalingam, M. Han, S. Berge and T. Xi

Orthodontics & craniofacial research 2022;25(1):1-13.


The aim of this systematic review was (i) to determine the role of muscular traction in the occurrence of skeletal relapse after advancement BSSO and (ii) to investigate the effect of advancement BSSO on the perimandibular muscles. This systematic review reports in accordance with the recommendations proposed by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Electronic database searches were performed in the databases MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were as follows: assessment of relapse after advancement BSSO; assessment of morphological and functional change of the muscles after advancement BSSO; and clinical studies on human subjects. Exclusion criteria were as follows: surgery other than advancement BSSO; studies in which muscle activity/traction was not investigated; and case reports with a sample of five cases or fewer, review articles, meta-analyses, letters, congress abstracts or commentaries. Of the initial 1006 unique articles, 11 studies were finally included. In four studies, an intervention involving the musculature was performed with subsequent assessment of skeletal relapse. The changes in the morphological and functional properties of the muscles after BSSO were studied in seven studies. The findings of this review demonstrate that the perimandibular musculature plays a role in skeletal relapse after advancement BSSO and may serve as a target for preventive strategies to reduce this complication. However, further research is necessary to (i) develop a better understanding of the role of each muscle group, (ii) to develop new therapeutic strategies and (iii) to define criteria that allow identification of patients at risk.