Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis is associated with incident stroke in patients with increased cardiovascular risk

N. Harlianto, N. Oosterhof, W. Foppen, M. Hol, R. Wittenberg, P. van der Veen, B. van Ginneken, F. Mohamed Hoesein, J. Verlaan, P. de Jong, J. Westerink, R. van Petersen, B. van Dinther, F. Asselbergs, H. Nathoe, G. de Borst, M. Bots, M. Geerlings, M. Emmelot, T. Leiner, A. Lely, N. van der Kaaij, L. Kappelle, Y. Ruigrok, M. Verhaar, F. Visseren, J. Westerink and F. the UCC-SMART-Studygroup

Rheumatology 2021;61:2867-2874.

DOI PMID Cited by ~2



Earlier retrospective studies have suggested a relation between DISH and cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction. The present study assessed the association between DISH and incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with high cardiovascular risk.


In this prospective cohort study, we included 4624 patients (mean age 58.4 years, 69.6% male) from the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease cohort. The main end point was major cardiovascular events (MACE: stroke, myocardial infarction and vascular death). Secondary endpoints included all-cause mortality and separate vascular events. Cause-specific proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the risk of DISH on all outcomes, and subdistribution hazard models were used to evaluate the effect of DISH on the cumulative incidence. All models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, diabetes, non-HDL cholesterol, packyears, renal function and C-reactive protein.


DISH was present in 435 (9.4%) patients. After a median follow-up of 8.7 (IQR 5.0-12.0) years, 864 patients had died and 728 patients developed a MACE event. DISH was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of ischaemic stroke. After adjustment in cause-specific modelling, DISH remained significantly associated with ischaemic stroke (HR 1.55; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.38), but not with MACE (HR 0.99; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.24), myocardial infarction (HR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.59, 1.31), vascular death (HR 0.94; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.27) or all-cause mortality (HR 0.94; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.16).


The presence of DISH is independently associated with an increased incidence and risk for ischaemic stroke, but not with MACE, myocardial infarction, vascular death or all-cause mortality.