Uncertainty-Aware Semi-Supervised Learning for Prostate MRI Zonal Segmentation

M. Hosseinzadeh, A. Saha, J. Bosma and H. Huisman

arXiv:2305.05984 2023.

DOI arXiv Cited by ~1

Quality of deep convolutional neural network predictions strongly depends on the size of the training dataset and the quality of the annotations. Creating annotations, especially for 3D medical image segmentation, is time-consuming and requires expert knowledge. We propose a novel semi-supervised learning (SSL) approach that requires only a relatively small number of annotations while being able to use the remaining unlabeled data to improve model performance. Our method uses a pseudo-labeling technique that employs recent deep learning uncertainty estimation models. By using the estimated uncertainty, we were able to rank pseudo-labels and automatically select the best pseudo-annotations generated by the supervised model. We applied this to prostate zonal segmentation in T2-weighted MRI scans. Our proposed model outperformed the semi-supervised model in experiments with the ProstateX dataset and an external test set, by leveraging only a subset of unlabeled data rather than the full collection of 4953 cases, our proposed model demonstrated improved performance. The segmentation dice similarity coefficient in the transition zone and peripheral zone increased from 0.835 and 0.727 to 0.852 and 0.751, respectively, for fully supervised model and the uncertainty-aware semi-supervised learning model (USSL). Our USSL model demonstrates the potential to allow deep learning models to be trained on large datasets without requiring full annotation. Our code is available at https://github.com/DIAGNijmegen/prostateMR-USSL.