Invasive Fungal Disease in Patients with Myeloid Malignancies: A Retrospective Cohort Study of a Diagnostic-Driven Care Pathway Withholding Mould-Active Prophylaxis

E. De Kort, J. Buil, S. Schalekamp, C. Schaefer-Prokop, P. Verweij, N. Schaap, N. Blijlevens and W. der Van Velden

Journal of Fungi 2022;8:925.

DOI PMID Cited by ~2

Objectives: Patients receiving remission induction therapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are at high risk of developing invasive fungal disease (IFD). Newer therapies with targeted antileukemic agents and the emergence of azole resistance pose a challenge to the strategy of primary antifungal prophylaxis. We report the experience of a diagnostic-driven care pathway (DCP) for the management of IFD in these patients, using only culture-directed mould inactive prophylaxis. Methods: Retrospectively, we used a single-centre study of consecutive patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for myeloid malignancies between 2014 and 2021. DCP consisted of serial cultures and serum galactomannan (sGM) screening, CT imaging, and bronchoscopy to direct targeted antifungal treatment. IFD was classified according to the 2020 EORTC/MSGERC criteria. Results: A total of 192 patients with myeloid malignancies received 300 courses of intensive chemotherapy. There were 14 cases of invasive yeast infections and 18 of probable/proven invasive mould disease (IMD). The incidence of probable/proven IMD during the first cycle of remission-induction chemotherapy was 4.6% (n = 9). sGM remained negative in all cases of invasive aspergillosis (IA), with positive mycology findings in bronchoalveolar lavage. All-cause mortality was 9.4% (n = 18) 100 days after starting chemotherapy and was comparable between patients with or without IFD. The fungal-related mortality was 1% (n = 2). Conclusion: Diagnostic-driven based management without universal mould active prophylaxis is a feasible strategy in the management of IFD and limits unnecessary antimould treatment during intensive chemotherapy. The poor performance of serial serum galactomannan screening in detecting IA warrants further investigation.