Cerebral Artery and Vein Segmentation in Fourdimensional CT Angiography Using Convolutional Neural Networks

M. Meijs, S. Pegge, M. Vos, A. Patel, S. van de Leemput, K. Koschmieder, M. Prokop, F. Meijer and R. Manniesing

Radiology: Artificial Intelligence 2020;2(4):e190178.

DOI Cited by ~9

Purpose: To implement and test a deep learning approach for the segmentation of the arterial and venous cerebral vasculature with four-dimensional (4D) CT angiography. Materials and Methods: Patients who had undergone 4D CT angiography for the suspicion of acute ischemic stroke were retrospectively identified. A total of 390 patients evaluated in 2014 (n = 113) or 2018 (n = 277) were included in this study, with each patient having undergone one 4D CT angiographic scan. One hundred patients from 2014 were randomly selected, and the arteries and veins on their CT scans were manually annotated by five experienced observers. The weighted temporal average and weighted temporal variance from 4D CT angiography were used as input for a three-dimensional Dense-U-Net. The network was trained with the fully annotated cerebral vessel artery-vein maps from 60 patients. Forty patients were used for quantitative evaluation. The relative absolute volume difference and the Dice similarity coefficient are reported. The neural network segmentations from 277 patients who underwent scanning in 2018 were qualitatively evaluated by an experienced neuroradiologist using a five-point scale. Results: The average time for processing arterial and venous cerebral vasculature with the network was less than 90 seconds. The mean Dice similarity coefficient in the test set was 0.80 6 0.04 (standard deviation) for the arteries and 0.88 +- 0.03 for the veins. The mean relative absolute volume difference was 7.3% 6 5.7 for the arteries and 8.5% +- 4.8 for the veins. Most of the segmentations (n = 273, 99.3%) were rated as very good to perfect. Conclusion: The proposed convolutional neural network enables accurate artery and vein segmentation with 4D CT angiography with a processing time of less than 90 seconds.