Can Whole-Body Baseline CT Radiomics Add Information to the Prediction of Best Response, Progression-Free Survival, and Overall Survival of Stage IV Melanoma Patients Receiving First-Line Targeted Therapy: A Retrospective Register Study

F. Peisen, A. Gerken, A. Hering, I. Dahm, K. Nikolaou, S. Gatidis, T. Eigentler, T. Amaral, J. Moltz and A. Othman

Diagnostics 2023;13:3210.


Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the combination of radiomics and clinical parameters in a machine-learning model offers additive information compared with the use of only clinical parameters in predicting the best response, progression-free survival after six months, as well as overall survival after six and twelve months in patients with stage IV malignant melanoma undergoing first-line targeted therapy. Methods: A baseline machine-learning model using clinical variables (demographic parameters and tumor markers) was compared with an extended model using clinical variables and radiomic features of the whole tumor burden, utilizing repeated five-fold cross-validation. Baseline CTs of 91 stage IV malignant melanoma patients, all treated in the same university hospital, were identified in the Central Malignant Melanoma Registry and all metastases were volumetrically segmented (n = 4727). Results: Compared with the baseline model, the extended radiomics model did not add significantly more information to the best-response prediction (AUC [95% CI] 0.548 (0.188, 0.808) vs. 0.487 (0.139, 0.743)), the prediction of PFS after six months (AUC [95% CI] 0.699 (0.436, 0.958) vs. 0.604 (0.373, 0.867)), or the overall survival prediction after six and twelve months (AUC [95% CI] 0.685 (0.188, 0.967) vs. 0.766 (0.433, 1.000) and AUC [95% CI] 0.554 (0.163, 0.781) vs. 0.616 (0.271, 1.000), respectively). Conclusions: The results showed no additional value of baseline whole-body CT radiomics for best-response prediction, progression-free survival prediction for six months, or six-month and twelve-month overall survival prediction for stage IV melanoma patients receiving first-line targeted therapy. These results need to be validated in a larger cohort.