AI-Assisted Biparametric MRI Surveillance of Prostate Cancer: Feasibility Study

C. Roest, T. Kwee, A. Saha, J. Fütterer, D. Yakar and H. Huisman

European Radiology 2022.


OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of automatic longitudinal analysis of consecutive biparametric MRI (bpMRI) scans to detect clinically significant (cs) prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: This retrospective study included a multi-center dataset of 1513 patients who underwent bpMRI (T2 + DWI) between 2014 and 2020, of whom 73 patients underwent at least two consecutive bpMRI scans and repeat biopsies. A deep learning PCa detection model was developed to produce a heatmap of all PIRADS ≥ 2 lesions across prior and current studies. The heatmaps for each patient’s prior and current examination were used to extract differential volumetric and likelihood features reflecting explainable changes between examinations. A machine learning classifier was trained to predict fromthese features csPCa (ISUP > 1) at the current examination according to biopsy. A classifier trained on the current study only was developed for comparison. An extended classifier was developed to incorporate clinical parameters (PSA, PSA density, and age). The cross-validated diagnostic accuracies were compared using ROC analysis. The diagnostic performance of the best model was compared to the radiologist scores. RESULTS: The model including prior and current study (AUC 0.81, CI: 0.69, 0.91) resulted in a higher (p = 0.04) diagnostic accuracy than the current only model (AUC 0.73, CI: 0.61, 0.84). Adding clinical variables further improved diagnostic performance (AUC 0.86, CI: 0.77, 0.93). The diagnostic performance of the surveillance AI model was significantly better (p = 0.02) than of radiologists (AUC 0.69, CI: 0.54, 0.81). Conclusions Our proposed AI-assisted surveillance of prostate MRI can pick up explainable, diagnostically relevant changes with promising diagnostic accuracy.