Detection of mandibular fractures on panoramic radiographs using deep learning.

S. Vinayahalingam, N. van Nistelrooij, B. van Ginneken, K. Bressem, D. Tröltzsch, M. Heiland, T. Flügge and R. Gaudin

Scientific reports 2022;12(1):19596.


Mandibular fractures are among the most frequent facial traumas in oral and maxillofacial surgery, accounting for 57% of cases. An accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan are vital in achieving optimal re-establishment of occlusion, function and facial aesthetics. This study aims to detect mandibular fractures on panoramic radiographs (PR) automatically. 1624 PR with fractures were manually annotated and labelled as a reference. A deep learning approach based on Faster R-CNN and Swin-Transformer was trained and validated on 1640 PR with and without fractures. Subsequently, the trained algorithm was applied to a test set consisting of 149 PR with and 171 PR without fractures. The detection accuracy and the area-under-the-curve (AUC) were calculated. The proposed method achieved an F1 score of 0.947 and an AUC of 0.977. Deep learning-based assistance of clinicians may reduce the misdiagnosis and hence the severe complications.